Geiger and von Lucke 2013 (†296)Geiger,Christian Philipp, and Jörn von Lucke, “Open Government and (Linked) (Open) (Government) (Data),” JeDEM 4, no. 2 (2013): 465-278.
- open data (p. 268): Open Data are all stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. ¶ Content of Open Data could be education material, geo data, statistics, traffic data, scientific publications, medical studies or radio and television programs. Open Data combines not only stored data of the public sector, but also includes data from businesses, universities, broadcasting stations or non-profit-organizations (von Lucke, 2011). (†271)
- open government (p. 265): Transparency, participation and collaboration are the main issues of the integration of citizens in the paradigm of Open Government. One requirement for realizing these central points is the free access to certain data. (†275)
- open government (p. 266): Open Government acts as an umbrella term for many different ideas and concepts. The narrow definition of Open Government consists of transparency, participation and collaboration of the state towards third actors like the economy or the citizenship. Most often, Open Government is equated with E-Government and the usage of Information and Communication Technologies. This general equation of a theoretical paradigm (Open Government) and the tool-kit or rather its instrument (Information and Communication Technologies) is incorrect. Thus, the discussion about the basis of an effective realization and implementation of Open Government is seen in the discussion about Open Data. ¶ In addition to the narrow understanding of Open Government (transparency, participation and collaboration) there is also a wider definition of Open Government and its impact to govern: The so-called “family of open government” consists of more than Open Data, Transparency, Participation and Collaboration. Further dimensions within the discussion about Open Government are the debates about Open Access and Open Knowledge as well as Open Innovation and Open Societal Innovation. Furthermore, Open Process Chains and Open Value Added Economic Chains can be discussed practically besides Open Statecraft and the Open Policy-Cycle theoretically. Further contents are Open Source, Open Standards as well as Open Interfaces (Open APIs) and the Open Markets Approach. This compilation of different ideas which can be included within the Open Government paradigm is exemplary and not conclusive. ¶ Regarding this multiplicity of concepts and ideas, Open Government is rather more than a single concept with a narrow thematical focus. Open Government must be seen as a wide concept with a broad range of aspects and opinions. (†276)
- open government (p. 266): Like the seven characteristics which describe the essence of the Web 2.0 on an abstract level, there are also seven characters which constitute Open Government and the way to determine Open Government. Von Lucke defines Open Government by the following attributes: (I) Building of new communities, (II) Information and Open Data, (III) Common Editing and Design, (IV) Common Consulting and Discussion, (V) Common Decision Making and Ordering, (VI) Common Action and Programming and (VII) Common Commenting and Rating of political and administrative topics (von Lucke, 2012 p. 166} (sic) (†277)