Moskop et al. 2005 (†506)Moskop, et al. "From Hippocrates to HIPAA: Privacy and Confidentiality in Emergency Medicine." Annuals of Emergency Medicine 45:1 (January 2005), p. 53-59.
- confidentiality (p. 53): In the famous oath attributed to Hippocrates, ancient Greek physicians pledged to respect confidentiality in these words: "What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about." (†785)
- confidentiality (p. 54): Confidentiality is closely related in meaning to one of the major uses of the term "privacy," namely, informational privacy. In health care interactions, patients communicate sensitive personal information to their caregivers so that the caregivers can understand patients’ medical problems and treat them appropriately. By calling such information confidential, we indicate that those who receive the information have a duty to protect it from disclosure to others who have no right to the information. Caregivers can breach confidentiality intentionally by directly disclosing patient information to an unauthorized person or inadvertently by discussing patient information in such a way that an unauthorized person can overhear it. (†787)
- privacy (p. 54): Defined simply in an early and influential law review article by Warren and Brandeis as "the right to be let alone," privacy is often characterized as freedom from exposure to or intrusion by others. ¶ Allen distinguishes 3 major usages of the term "privacy": physical privacy, informational privacy, and decisional privacy. Physical privacy refers to freedom from contact with others or exposure of one's body to others. In contemporary health care, physical privacy is unavoidably limited. ¶ Informational privacy refers to prevention of disclosure of personal information. ¶ Decisional privacy refers to an ability to make and act on one’s personal choices without interference from others or the state. (†786)