Open Government Data 2014 (†532)"Welcome to Open Government Data." (Open Government Data, [n.d. 2014]).
- open government data : Data produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities Data which is open as defined in the Open Definition – that is, it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone. (†848)
- open government data : ¶ 1. Transparency. In a well-functioning, democratic society citizens need to know what their government is doing. To do that, they must be able freely to access government data and information and to share that information with other citizens. Transparency isn’t just about access, it is also about sharing and reuse – often, to understand material it needs to be analyzed and visualized and this requires that the material be open so that it can be freely used and reused. ¶ 2. Releasing social and commercial value. In a digital age, data is a key resource for social and commercial activities. Everything from finding your local post office to building a search engine requires access to data, much of which is created or held by government. By opening up data, government can help drive the creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value. ¶ 3. Participatory Governance. Much of the time citizens are only able to engage with their own governance sporadically – maybe just at an election every 4 or 5 years. By opening up data, citizens are enabled to be much more directly informed and involved in decision-making. This is more than transparency: it’s about making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the process of governance but being able to contribute to it. (†849)
- open government data : 1. Complete All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. ¶ While non-electronic information resources, such as physical artifacts, are not subject to the Open Government Data principles, it is always encouraged that such resources be made available electronically to the extent feasible. 2. Primary Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. ¶ If an entity chooses to transform data by aggregation or transcoding for use on an Internet site built for end users, it still has an obligation to make the full-resolution information available in bulk for others to build their own sites with and to preserve the data for posterity. 3. Timely Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Accessible Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. ¶ Data must be made available on the Internet so as to accommodate the widest practical range of users and uses. This means considering how choices in data preparation and publication affect access to the disabled and how it may impact users of a variety of software and hardware platforms. Data must be published with current industry standard protocols and formats, as well as alternative protocols and formats when industry standards impose burdens on wide reuse of the data. ¶ Data is not accessible if it can be retrieved only through navigating web forms, or if automated tools are not permitted to access it because of a robots.txt file, other policy, or technological restrictions. 5. Machine processable Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing. ¶ The ability for data to be widely used requires that the data be properly encoded. Free-form text is not a substitute for tabular and normalized records. Images of text are not a substitute for the text itself. Sufficient documentation on the data format and meanings of normalized data items must be available to users of the data. 6. Non-discriminatory Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of registration. ¶ Anonymous access to the data must be allowed for public data, including access through anonymous proxies. Data should not be hidden behind “walled gardens.” Non-proprietary Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control. ¶ Proprietary formats add unnecessary restrictions over who can use the data, how it can be used and shared, and whether the data will be usable in the future. While some proprietary formats are nearly ubiquitous, it is nevertheless not acceptable to use only proprietary formats. Likewise, the relevant non-proprietary formats may not reach a wide audience. In these cases, it may be necessary to make the data available in multiple formats. License-free Data is not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions may be allowed. ¶ Because government information is a mix of public records, personal information, copyrighted work, and other non-open data, it is important to be clear about what data is available and what licensing, terms of service, and legal restrictions apply. Data for which no restrictions apply should be marked clearly as being in the public domain. ¶ Compliance must be reviewable. (†851)