World Bank, 2007 (†565)World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group, Sourcebook for Evaluating Global and Regional Partnership Programs: Indicative Principles and Standards (IEG-World Bank, 2007).
- governance (p.71): Governance concerns the structures, functions, processes, and organizational traditions that have been put in place within the context of a program's authorizing environment "to ensure that the [program] is run in such a way that it achieves its objectives in an effective and transparent manner" (Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators). It is the "framework of accountability to users, stakeholders and the wider community, within which organizations take decisions, and lead and control their functions, to achieve their objectives" (Audit Commission, UK). Good governance adds value by improving the performance of the program through more efficient management, more strategic and equitable resource allocation and service provision, and other such efficiency improvements that lend themselves to improved development outcomes and impacts. It also ensures the ethical and effective implementation of its core functions. (†947)
- governance (p.71): The boundary between governance and management is not hard and fast. In particular, both the maturity and the size of the program will influence the dividing line and the degree of separation between the program’s governance and management structures. Less-mature programs may take time to establish formal governance mechanisms. Smaller programs with limited staffing and financial resources may tend to blend responsibilities between those who govern and those who manage, and to call on governing body members to be more involved in specific day-to-day management decisions. The extent of governance should be proportionate to the size of the program in order not to result in an over-governed and under-performing program. (†1100)
- governance (p.72-73): The governing bodies...typically exercise six core functions: strategic direction, management oversight, stakeholder participation, risk management, conflict management, audit and evaluation. (†1101)
- management (p.71): Management concerns the day-to-day operation of the program within the context of the strategies, policies, processes, and procedures that have been established by the governing body. Whereas governance is concerned with "doing the right thing," management is concerned with "doing things right" (Tricker). (†948)
- management (p.73-74): Management functions vary by program size and type, partnership arrangement, legal arrangement, etc. While the proceeding list is not exhaustive, seven general functions...are as follows: program implementation, regulatory compliance, reviewing and reporting, administrative efficiency, stakeholder communication, learning, performance assessment. (†1099)