Buyya, et al. 2009 (†587)Buyya, Rajkumar, Chee Shin Yeo, Srikumar Venugopal, James Broberg, and Ivona Brandic. "Cloud Computing and Emerging IT Platforms: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering Computing as the 5th Utility" Future Generation Computer Systems 25:6 (2009) p.599-616.
- cloud (p.601-602): A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resource(s) based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers.’’ At a cursory glance, Clouds appear to be a combination of clusters and Grids. However, this is not the case. Clouds are clearly next-generation data centers with nodes ‘‘virtualized’’ through hypervisor technologies such as VMs, dynamically ‘‘provisioned’’ on demand as a personalized resource collection to meet a specific service-level agreement, which is established through a ‘‘negotiation’’ and accessible as a composable service via Web Service technologies such as SOAP and REST. (†1184)
- cloud computing (p.599): Computing is being transformed to a model consisting of services that are commoditized and delivered in a manner similar to traditional utilities such as water, electricity, gas, and telephony. In such a model, users access services based on their requirements without regard to where the services are hosted or how they are delivered. Several computing paradigms have promised to deliver this utility computing vision and these include cluster computing, Grid computing, and more recently Cloud computing. The latter term denotes the infrastructure as a ‘‘Cloud’’ from which businesses and users are able to access applications from anywhere in the world on demand. Thus, the computing world is rapidly transforming towards developing software for millions to consume as a service, rather than to run on their individual computers. (†1183)