• ISO TC307 N38 (United States). 2017. (†834)

    ISO TC307 N38 (United States). 2017. "United States NB-Contribution-SG-Vocabulary-RA,” unpublished submission, March 15, 2017.

Existing Citations

  • consensus mechanism (p.2): Consensus Services - the means by which transactions are validated for inclusion in a distributed ledger. Multiple options should be available. (†2184)
  • consensus mechanism (s.v. "High-level View of a Blockchain Network): a ledger. In most systems, the nodes belong to different organizations. The nodes communicate with each other in order to gain agreement on what should be in the ledger. The process of gaining this agreement is called consensus, and there are a number of different algorithms that have been developed for this purpose. (†2188)
  • consensus mechanism (s.v. "Consensus"): Enables a consensus process used by the nodes within the blockchain network to agree on the validity and order of transactions appended to the ledger. The consensus process maintains a consistently replicated ledger within the network. (†2194)
  • distributed ledger technology (p.2): Distributed Ledger - the consensus validated transactions that are replicated across nodes. (†2183)
  • encryption (p.2): Encryption Services - the ability to select and leverage different types of encryption such as quantum-tolerant algorithms (†2182)
  • hash function (s.v. "Cryptographic Services"): Hash functions are often used to protect the ledger from modifications. Any change to information in the ledger will result in a computed hash that is different from the hash that was previously computed and stored for the ledger. A new hash is computed each time a transaction is added to the ledger. (†2200)
  • identity management (p.2): a means to maintain digital identities for different actors and their roles. (†2180)
  • immutability (s.v. "High-level View of a Blockchain Network): Users send transaction requests to the blockchain in order to perform the operations the chain is designed to provide. Once a transaction is completed, a record of the transaction is added to one or more of the ledgers and can never be altered or removed. This property of the blockchain is called immutability. (†2189)
  • intra-chain services (p.2): the ability for contracts on one chain to interact with contracts on another (†2186)
  • ledger (s.v. "Ledger"): A ledger is a sequence of cryptographically linked blocks that contain transactions. (†2195)
  • off-chain access services (p.2): the secure means to access off-chain services such as trusted data sources or functions (†2187)
  • permission (p.2): fundamental access control such as those based on a white list of identities and the functions and/or data that is available to that identity. (†2181)
  • permissioned blockchain (s.v. "High-level View of a Blockchain Network): In a permissioned blockchain, users must be enrolled in the blockchain before they are allowed to perform transactions. The enrollment process gives the user credentials that are used to identify the user when he or she performs transactions. (†2190)
  • permissioned blockchain (s.v. "Permissions options" ): Permissioned networks are limited to participants within a given business network. On permissioned blockchains, participants are allowed to view only the transactions relevant to them and are only allowed to perform operations for which they have permission. (†2198)
  • permissionless blockchain (s.v. "High-level View of a Blockchain Network): In a permissionless blockchain, any person can perform transactions, but they are usually restricted from performing operations on any data but their own. (†2191)
  • permissionless blockchain (s.v. "Permissions options"): Permissionless networks are open to any participant, and transactions are verified against the pre-existing rules of the network. Any participant can view transactions on the ledger, even if participants are anonymous. Bitcoin is the most familiar example of a permissionless network. (†2197)
  • secure data access services (p.2): the ability for distributed applications to securely store and retrieve data. (†2185)
  • smart contract (s.v. "High-level View of a Blockchain Network): Most business-oriented blockchains include the ability to use smart contracts, sometimes called chaincode. A smart contract is an executable software module that is developed by the blockchain owners and installed into the blockchain itself. When a user sends a transaction to the blockchain, it can invoke a smart contract module which performs functions defined by the creator of that module. Smart contracts usually have the ability to read and write to a local data store which is separate from the blockchain itself and can be updated when transactions occur. The business logic contained in a smart contract creates or operates on business data that is contained in this persistent data store. (†2192)
  • smart contract (s.v. "Smart Contract"): Smart contracts, sometimes termed chaincode, are computer programs that execute in a secure environment within the blockchain platform of any node in the network. · Smart contracts encapsulate business logic involving contract terms and conditions between agreeing participants. · The smart contract code determines what transactions are recorded into the blockchain and what information they contain. Smart contracts can be written in a programming language that depends on the blockchain platform. · The application code is stored in the ledger. Transactions can invoke smart contract functions to perform the business logic that is described in the smart contract code. Smart contract code can be stateless or stateful. If required, the code can access external information and systems, via the system integration component shown in Figure 2.. (†2199)
  • subchain (s.v. "High-level View of a Blockchain Network): Some blockchains support the concept of subchains, which are sometimes called channels. Subchains are logically separate chains that occupy the same physical blockchain. Each subchain may be owned by a different entity and may be accessible to a different set of users. Nodes may be set up so that some nodes participate in certain subchains and not in other subchains. The result of this configuration is that the ledger on some nodes will contain transactions for that subchain while the ledgers on other nodes will not. Another variation on the basic blockchain is one in which nodes are assigned specific purposes instead of being identical in their function. This configuration may be used to optimize the design for performance, since the system can be faster if every node does not have to perform every operation required for a transaction on the chain. (†2193)
  • transaction (s.v. "Transactions"): Transactions are records that are appended to the ledger. The transactions could record the exchange of ownership for anything of value such as stocks, bonds, commercial paper, diamonds etc. Other use cases could include changes to medical records or critical device status in an IoT example. (†2196)